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Introduction to Prolog Programming.


Prolog Programming stands for Programming in Logic. It is widely used fourth generation language particularly used in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Programming. It is declarative language rather than procedure-oriented language and focuses on “what” rather than “how”.

Development of Prolog Programming

The idea of Prolog programming emerged in the early 1970s to use logic as a programming language. Robert Kowalski at Edinburg showed the first use of Programming in logic based on the theoretical side. Meanwhile, Maarten Van Emden at Edinburg carried out the first experimental demonstration of this Programming Language. Alain Colmerauer at Marseilles become first to implement the idea of Prolog Programming in the real world.

Historical Controversies of Prolog

After the successful implementation of Prolog Programming, It rapidly gains popularity in Europe as a practical programming tool. In Japan, Prolog was placed at the center of the development of the fifth-generation computers. In USA Prolog was generally accepted with some delay, due to several historical factors. One of these was an early American experience with the Micro planner language, also akin to the idea of logic programming but inefficiently implemented.

Advantages of Prolog

The Prolog has a number of advantages which are as follows:

  • It is easy to represent the knowledge.
  • The pattern matching has natural support.
  • There is also a natural support of meta-programming.
  • The program’s meaning is independent of their execution.
  • The connection between programs and computed answers and specification is simple.
  • At last, the programs don’t need to distinguish from databases.

Disadvantages of Prolog

The Prolog doesn’t cover all of the cases to become a good programming language. Here are some of the disadvantages of Prolog Programming Languages:

  • The design of the database that accurately represents relationships can be very difficult.
  • Complex arithmetical computations are not preferred by the use of Prolog.
  • Current generation computer (sequential access) is not best optimized for Prolog rather it works best on parallel executions. (Fifth generation Computers)

Using Prolog

Prolog can be started by downloading the open source software named as SWI Prolog from here. So, it’s light weighted open source software written in C and Prolog to perform the operation of Prolog Programming Language.


From the series of this Prolog Programming Language, additionally, we’ll be discussing more detail of the Prolog programming language and it’s used and discuss the various problem like a family relationship, monkey and banana problem, N-Queen Problem, etc.


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Dipendra Laxmi Bahadur Chand Thakuri
CEO @ Vine Software Innovation Company (Pvt.) Ltd. (VSIC)
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