ASIAN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
2ND Terminal Examination
Brief Answer Questions
a. What are “rubber-stamp” expressions?
Ans: Rubber stamps are expressions used from habit every time a certain situation occurs as they give routine rather than customized treatment.
b. What is stereotyping?
Ans: Focusing on similarities is known as stereotyping.
c. What is the error effect on perception?
Ans: Error effect on perception is our acquaintances, statistical comparisons and our viewpoints on reality as static.
d. In which sense do we live in two worlds?
Ans: The two words we live in are:
- The world of words (which is Limited inaccurate)
- The word of reality (which is infinite complex)
e. What is the living nature of language?
Ans: The living nature of language refers to the changing nature of language why we have so many words and so many definitions of words.
f. What is the value of sales writing?
Ans: The value of sales writing is in knowing selling techniques will help in writing other types of letter.
g. What are the orders of thank you letters?
Ans: The order of Thank you letter are:
- Expression of gratitude
- Comments that fit the situation
- Any additional information needed
- Goodwill close
h. What do you mean by “Order of Convection” in the resume writing?
Ans: “Order of convection” is the most common order which one is based on some logical grouping of the information such as education, personal details, and experiences in resume writing.
i. What are the three specific letter strategies in the structure of the letter?
Ans: The three specific letter strategies in the structure of the letter are:
j. Define Topic sentence and write its three ways to good use.
Ans: Topic sentences is called Thesis sentence. The three ways to good use are:
- Topic sentence first
- The topic sentence at last
- A topic sentence within the paragraph
Attempt any Five Questions:
- Move yourself 10 years into the future. Your career development has been fairly successful, though not sensational. To this point, you have been employed by one major firm (you name it) and have gained excellent experience. But the road to advancement with this firm appears to have only limited possibilities. So you have decided to look elsewhere for a suitable position.
Your search for a new position turns up one good possibility. The job is with a major competitor of your present employer and would represent a logical move up from your present status.
Making only logical and modest assumptions about your development and experiences over the 10 year period, write a job application letter. Assume that a resume accompanies it.
Pratap Panchatej Bajracharya,
August 1, 2019.
Mr. Saroj Amatya
Himalayan groups of Techno-Management.
Subject: Job Application Letter with Resume.
Dear Mr. Amatya,
I was overwhelmed when I saw your advertisement for an IT officer who as a managerial skill as well in your office. I believe I am suitable for the post as I’ve been employed Asian Groups of Technology for 5 years after my completion of my bachelor’s with an expert in the field of technology with managerial skills as I have hosted many seminars being a host which makes me a highly competitive candidate for this position. My main strength that would help you to know my experience better are listed:
- I am up to date with the current technology in the market.
- I’ve mastered the hardware as semblance and software of gadgets.
- I have completed my bachelor’s with good grades.
- I’ve got involved in different IT field program which will help us to think creatively and rationally.
In addition to this qualification, I can speak in a huge mass as I have hosted a seminar with the fluency in 5 different languages. As I requested I enclose my certificate with my resume. Please, you may see my resume. Please, you may see my resume and potential and Additional information on my experience.
You can reach me on via email at [email protected] or my cell number 01-4388155. Thank you for providing a job application and thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking about this employment opportunity.
- Name: Pratap Panchatej Bajracharya
- DOB: 07th May 2000.
- Place of Birth: Kathmandu
- Gender: Male
- Experiences :
- Computer lecturer for 2 years.
- Assistant manager at the Asian Group of Technology.
- Educational qualifications:
- SLC-2073-NEPAL GOVERNMENT-3.60-A+
- +2-2075-NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL BOARD-3.20-A
- BACHELOR’S-2080-TRIBHUWAN UNIVERSITY-3.65-A+
- MASTERS-2083- HARWARD UNIVERSITY-3.2-A.
- Skill and Strengths:
- Computer literate:
- Mastered in MS office, Hardware configuration of Gadgets, LINUX.
- English, Nepali , Newari, Hindi, Spanish.
- Computer literate:
- What are the main principles of clear writing? Discuss any three of them in detail.
Ans: The main principles of clear writing so follow:
- Care in word choice.
- Emphasis on short sentences.
- Care in paragraph design.
- Care in word choice:
- Selecting Words the Reader will understand:
Simplifying is a large part of adaptation for three reasons.
- Many write at too difficult a level.
- Usually, the writer knows the subject better than the reader.
- Results of research support simplification.
- Use Familiar Words:
Familiar words communicate. Use them use your judgment in choosing them.
-Unfamiliar words: The conclusion ascertained from a perusal of the pertinent data is that a lucrative market exists for the product.
-Familiar words: The data studied show that the product is in good demand.
- Choose the short over the Long Word.
Generally, short words communicate better. There are some exceptions.
-Long words: They acceded to the proposition to terminate business.
-Short, Simple Words: They agreed to quit the business.
- Use Technical words with Caution:
All fields have technical words. These words are useful when you communicate with people in your own field.
- Emphasis on short sentences:
Adapt sentences to readers, Clear sentences result from orderly thinking. Clear sentences have several qualities. Length is the most important quality; long questions are hard to read.
Keep sentences short for best readability. Short means about 16 or 18 words for middle readers. Sometimes shorter or longer sentences are justified. Short sentences are achieved in two basic ways.
- Limiting Sentences Content:
Limiting content is one way to make short sentences. However, avoid overdoing this suggestion. Too many short sentences give a choppy effect.
- Economizing on Words:
Another way to shorten sentences is through word economy. Work for shorter ways of saying things: There are several suggestions for doing this.
- Cluttering Phases:
Avoid cluttering phrases. Substitute shorter expressions.
-Cluttering words: Along the lines of, At the present time
-Substitute: Like, Now
- Surplus Words:
Eliminate surplus words that add no meaning.
Contains surplus words:
- He ordered desks that are of the executive type.
Surplus words eliminated
- He ordered executive type desks.
- Roundabout Construction:
Avoid roundabout ways of saying things. Of the many ways of saying anything, some are direct and to the point, while others cover the same ground in a roundabout way.
- The department budget can be observed to be decreasing each year.
- He criticized everyone he came in contact with.
Direct and to the point:
- The department budget decreases each year.
- He criticized everyone he met.
- Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design:
You should give every item its due emphasis. Short sentences emphasize content. Long sentences de-emphasize content. Determining emphasis is a matter of good judgment.
- Giving the Sentences Unity:
All the parts of a sentence should concern one thought. There are three reasons for unity of error. They are:
- Unrelated Ideas
- Excessive Details
- Illogical Constructions
- Arranging Sentences for Clarity:
Clear writing requires that you follow established rules for grammar. These rules are not arbitrary but are based on custom and logical relationships. For example dangling modifiers confuse meaning.
So do unparalleled constructions, pronouns without antecedents and subject-verb disagreements.
- What are the malfunctions in communication? Elaborate any two of them.
Ans: The communication is imperfect and due which it may cause a lot of malfunctions. Some of the malfunctions of communication are:
- Two valued thinking.
- Fact- Inference confusion.
- Blocked mind
- The static viewpoints.
- Failure to Discriminate
- Two valued Thinking
Two valued thinking exists when we consider only two possibilities in a situation.
Eg. Pass or Fail in the exam.
- The True Dichotomy:
Some situation may properly be “either/or’s.” (eg. “You will pass this course or fail.”).Many business examples illustrate two-valued logic (buy or not buy; invest or not invest).It is all about choosing one out of two as either yes or no.
- Multivated Situations:
Some situations are multivated, with values between extreme positions (e.g. not all people are fat or skinny, intelligent or stupid). We should not put things in extreme all the time. In English, we have many either/or words and few in between words. Our languages force much two-valued thinking.
- The Danger Involved:
Use two-valued words when appropriate but remember that they may not always fit reality. They should be forever eliminated from our vocabularies.
Illustration: Are workers lazy or industrious? Are political leaders liberal or conservative? Good or Bad?
As a result we fail to recognize the reality of the situation, which in most cases involve a mixture of good and bad, right or wrong. Are unions corrupt or honest? Any subject involving viewpoints in a topic for two-valued thinking.
- Value of specific Reference:
Overcome two-valued thinking by:
- Being aware of the problem.
- Using words precisely.
In using words precisely, consider quantitative measures (She has a 4.0 GPA). Also, use more middle-ground words (exceptionally good, moderately good, as well as candied (potential), sugary, etc.) But avoid know it all statements by using less definite and more qualifying words.
- Application in Business Communication
Two-valued thinking applies to reports, letters, and speaking. We can use many other middle grounds positions in business communication rather than two-valued thinking.
- Fact-inference Confusion
Communication about our experiences is true communication. It fits reality. But factual communication is not always possible. Often we must inter (communication about the unknown). Confusing interference with facts creates miscommunication. We communicate more inference than fact.
- Need for Inferences:
Inferences are necessary for communication. We must evaluate, interpret, and predict. These are inferences. The inference is also a survival strategy. Inferences involve risks. To love, we must calculate risks and make inferences. We can’t know everything with which we must deal in life.
We can’t totally avoid inferences. We can’t limit ourselves to what we know, we used to infer, and we need to predict many things.
- Effect on Communication:
We must make both inferences and factual statements. But we must not confuse the two. There may be multiple possibilities but we believe in inferences as a fact which causes malfunction.
Because inferences are not facts, communication that uses them may not be true.
- Calculating the Probabilities:
We must calculate the probability of correctness of our inferences. With the odds of a thousand to one of an inference being incorrect, think about the one. Be aware of reality, and check inferences against it.
- Importance in Business Communication:
Fact- inferences confusion has many consequences for business communication. The report writer must consider the facts and their meaning. Fact- inference confusion has many consequences for business communication.
- The question of meaning is concerned with perception, dictionary, representation, abstraction, context, encoding decoding and so on. Discuss.
Ans: Language fits our minds. But the word-meaning relationship is complex and must email additional factors. The preceding analysis leads to the overall conclusion that language is structured to fit in the mind.
- Location in the Mind:
Meanings exist in people, not in words. If words had meaning, we would have one language but we have many languages.
- Meaning and Dictionaries:
Most people agree on meanings even though their filters differ. Dictionaries record these agreements. Their role is misinterpreted.
- The Living Nature of Language:
Language can change. People can use new or old words differently and alter their agreement on word meanings. The changing nature of language explains why we have so many words and so many definitions of words.
For examples: A cat is an animal, vicious, hoist, whip, fish and so on.
Multiple meanings for words are common. Think about fast, bag but communication requires words agreement and multiple meanings create problems.
- Connotative and Denotative Meaning:
Two other types of meaning exist. Denotative meanings “point” to objects or events in reality.
Connotative meaning “associates”. It adds to or detracts from denotative meaning.
Denotative meanings inform about similar parts of reality.
When you communicate, consider both the denotative and connotative meanings of your messages. Study word meanings carefully, choose words that will allow you to achieve that desired result.
- Context as an Aid to Meaning:
Context (the situation in which words are used) affects meaning. Context may be: Physical or Verbal
- Context of the Physical Environment: Physical context refers to be a place or the environment in which a word is used.
- Context of the Surrounding Words: Verbal context refers to meaning provided by other words.
- As the map fits the Territory:
We live in two worlds.
- The worlds of reality(infinite complex)
- The world of words (limited inaccurate)
Differences in the two explain communication. There is a map-territory relationship between the two but the two are different. Do not treat as a map-territories.
- What is the filter of the mind? Enumerate its three major categories and explain in details.
Ans: Like our abilities to perceive reality, our abilities to interpret perceptions are limited. Interpreting perceptions involve the filtering process of the communication model. The filter of mind concerns how we give meaning to the reality our sensory receptors pick up and pass through our minds.
The three categories are:
- A Storehouse of Knowledge
Knowledge stored in the filter is the major determinant of the meanings we give perceptions. We store what we learn mainly from experience and through words. We begin learning in infancy; we retain only a small part of the whole. Knowledge stored is forever changing. Knowledge stored governs the meaning given perceptions. But correct knowledge leads to correct interpretation.
In summary, Knowledge influences meaning given to perception and can be true or false. Both determine the meanings given.
- The Role Of Opinions, Attitudes, And Beliefs
Opinions, attitudes, and beliefs are viewpoints of differing intensity.
Opinion concern fewer areas of life. (styles of dress, football strategies).
Attitudes relate to intermediate matters of concern (equal employment, appointments to the Federal Reserve Board).
Beliefs refer to the most critical areas of life (belief in God, the role of the family).
Viewpoints can be formed in five ways:
- Through Objective reasoning.
- Social Strata and Viewpoints
- Economic class
- Ethnic inheritances
- Sex and Age
- The early influence of Family
- Change effects of Groups
- Self-interest as Determinant of Viewpoints
- The Influence Of Emotions
Emotions are the third major factor in filtering. Emotions (sources of energy that make the mind work) keep us alive. Emotions may be defined as the sources of energy that make the mind work. Emotional energy is an inevitable result of our perception. Although we might control it, we cannot stop it.
Our emotions determine to mean. For example, a cheerful Good morning might get a negative meaning from an upset person. The same greeting might get a positive meaning from a happy person.
- What do you mean by bringing writing to life with words? What are the techniques of doing so? Explain any two of them.
Ans: Strong words alert sense organs best. Use them to hold the reader’s attention.
Follow four suggestions to add to vitality to your writing:
- Select strong words.
- Use concrete words.
- Favour active voice
- Avoid camouflaged verbs.
- Use strong, Vigorous Words:
To select words wisely, consider the shades of differences in meanings. Verbs are the strongest words. Nouns are second. Adjectives and adverbs are weak words. They involve judgment. Use them sparingly.
- Use the Concrete Word:
Use concrete language for interesting writing. Concrete words are specific words. Abstract words have general meanings. (e.g: administrative, negotiation). Concreteness also means exactness
- A significant loss
- Light in weight
- The majority
- A 53% loss
- Feather light
- Write short notes on:
- Sexist words:
Many words in our language suggest male dominance. It is better not to use them. Such words may be offensive to the listener.
There are 3 types:
- Masculine Pronouns for both sexes.
Avoid using the masculine pronouns (he, his, him) for both sexes. There are 3 ways to do it
- Reword the sentence.
– Sexist: If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list.
– Non-sexist: A customer who pays promptly is placed on our preferred list.
- Make the reference plural.
- Substitute neutral expressions.
- Words Derived from Masculine Words:
Avoid words suggest male dominance.
|Manmade||Manufactured, of human origin|
|Congressman||Member of Congress, representative|
|Mailman||A letter carrier, Mail Carrier|
- Words That Demean Women’s Status:
Avoids words that demean the role of women.
- Giving the sentences Unity:
All parts of a sentence should concern one thought. There are three reasons for unity error.
- Unrelated Areas
First, unrelated ideas in sentence violate unity. There are three basic ways to give unity to sentences that contain seemingly unrelated ideas:
- Putting the ideas in separate sentences.
- Subordinating an idea.
- Adding words that show relationships.
– Unrelated: Our territory is the southern half of the state, and our salespeople cannot cover it thoroughly.
-Improved: Our territory is the southern half of the state. Our salespeople cannot cover it thoroughly.
- Excessive Details:
Excessive detail is another cause of lack of unity. If the detail is important put it in a separate sentence. This means using short sentences.
– Excessive detail: We have attempted to trace the Plytec insulation that you ordered from us October I and about which you inquired in your October 10 letter, but we have not yet been able to locate it, although we are sending you a rush shipment immediately.
-Improved: We are sending you a rush shipment of Ply-tec insulation immediately. Following your October 10 inquiry, we attempted to trace your October I order. We were unable to locate it.
- Illogical Constructions:
Illogical constructions can rob a sentence of unity. Active and passive voice in the same sentence can violate unity. So can mixed constructions.
-Illogical Construction: Job rotation is when you train people by moving them from job to job.
-Improved: Job rotation is a training method involving moving people from job to job.